Colors make the world delightful. It’s hard to imagine a life without blue skies, green plants, and the sometimes fiery, sometimes muted, highlights we see in the world.
Colors also affect our psyche; they create an emotional response. Too many gray days breed discontent, prisons are being painted in pastels of various colors to control moods, and businesses use different colors to make people hungry, content, excited, or calm.
Color also can affect our health, especially if you consider that, in the plant world, coloring is achieved through carotenoids, which not only supply us with something pleasant to look at, but also healthful properties.
Orange is the color of carrots, yams, cantaloupes, butternut squash, and pumpkin. In the natural and healthful world, you would say that orange represents beta carotene. Beta carotene gets its name from carrots, but green leafy vegetables like spinach also contain beta carotene. The orange is masked by the green of chlorophyll. What does the color orange do for us healthwise?
The cancer connection
The beta carotene-cancer link was made during research on vitamin A (which the body manufactures from beta carotene) and cancer in 1981. This year saw reports published in Nature, the International Journal of Cancer, and the Lancet. In late 1981, the New York Times featured an article about the risk of lung cancer and how beta carotene reduced this risk.
Official recognition came in 1982, when the National Academy of Sciences’ report, Diet and Cancer, gave the academic and medical "seal of approval" to the link between beta carotene and vitamin A and reduced risk of cancer. Since then, there has been reconfirmation of this link.
In a study reported in the July 1996 issue of Carcinogenesis, the effect of beta carotene and selenium on pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats was investigated. The researchers noted that both beta carotene and selenium might have had chemopreventive effects, especially when added to diets during the late promotion phase of the carcinogenic process.
A 1998 study in Pancreas on pancreatic carcinogenesis showed similar results. In this study, the effects of alpha carotene, beta carotene, palm carotene, and green tea polyphenols (GTP) on the progression stage of pancreatic carcinogenesis were studied in Syrian hamsters. Inhibitory effects were noted for beta carotene and palm carotene (which includes beta carotene). GTP also showed inhibitory effects.
In 1997, Harvard Medical School released research that indicates that beta carotene can sharply reduce the risk of prostate cancer in men with low beta carotene blood levels. (Cancer Weekly Plus, June 9, 1997). In this research, the diets, lifestyles, and health of more than 22,000 male doctors were observed. Half of the doctors were given 50 mg (80,000 IU) of beta carotene every other day. The findings indicate that physicians with low levels of beta carotene were one-third more likely to develop prostate cancer. The doctors who supplemented with beta carotene were 36 percent less likely to develop prostate cancer than those who ate few beta carotene-rich fruits and vegetables and did not take beta carotene supplements.
An article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (August 1997) notes that epidemiological studies reveal that people with high intakes of beta carotene or high blood concentrations of this nutrient have a reduced risk of various diseases, including cancer and heart disease. The authors note that this is a credible hypothesis, because
1) increased consumption of beta carotene is strongly associated with reduced risk of cancer;
2) beta carotene is a dietary antioxidant and antioxidants inhibit early stages of carcinogenesis; and
3) beta carotene reduces cancer in experimental animal models.
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